My thoughts on Femen & feminism

I just finished watching an episode of al-Jazeera Stream, where one of the women from the feminist group Femen was speaking. Femen have become widely known over the past few years, particularly for their tactic of stripping to protest patriarchy. Their logic goes like this: women’s bodies are consistently used by men and the media and don’t really belong to us, so we must take them back by re-appropriating them as a symbol of resistance of patriarchy. Therefore stripping becomes an act of “taking back our bodies” and a way to stand up against patriarchy. While I completely agree with this logic, as well as with the fact that in today’s world our bodies still don’t belong to us, what I find problematic about Femen is their tendency to universalize their feminist vision. What works for them, should work for all women, everywhere.

Now this isn’t the first time feminism has confronted this issue. First and second wave feminists in the US, for example, were notorious for excluding women who weren’t like them: white, middle-class, American. Their feminism was distinctly local, but was branded and spread as ‘universal’ and if women didn’t adopt it then they were anti-feminist. The woman form Femen who was on al-Jazeera was eerily reminiscent of those kind of discourses, especially when she accused the other participants of not being feminists because they didn’t agree with Femen’s tactics.

Femen have also been famous for their focus on Muslim women (again, what’s new). Their protest in Paris in front of the Eiffel Tower where they wore burqas and then stripped, as well as their decision to march naked through a Muslim neighbourhood in Paris demonstrate their belief that the way most Muslim women dress is against feminism and against liberation. In this case they have defined liberation in a very specific way, and that is the main issue I have with them.

Many feminists define liberation as essentially wearing as little as possible. The more you wear, the more oppressed you are. It is only within this context that a process of stripping can be seen as a liberating process. While this may be the case for some women, it is certainly not the case for me, or for most women I know. That doesn’t mean we aren’t feminists—it means that we see liberation differently. The reason I’m a feminist is because I believe every woman should have a choice in how she lives. These choices are obviously dependent on socially constructed ideas, norms and values. What a woman can choose in Egypt is not the same as what a woman can choose in Paris, simply because societies see different things as “good” or “bad.” Contrary to what western feminists may think, not every woman wears the veil because she’s forced to by her violent, patriarchal father. By labelling specific things as “feminist” or “anti-feminist,” you are yet again imposing rules and boundaries on women—which is exactly what you claim patriarchy does.

Feminism can only succeed if we accept diversity. There is no way we can fight against a system as strongly entrenched as patriarchy if we keep up all this in-fighting about who is a good feminist and who isn’t a feminist at all. Feminism shouldn’t be about whether a veil is “okay” or not—it should be about whether a woman was forced to wear a veil, just as it should be about whether a woman in Paris was forced to wear a mini-skirt. It should be about the effects of capitalism, of racism, of Islamophobia on the everyday lives of women. Feminism has the potential to be greatly emancipatory by adopting an anti-racist, anti-homophobic, anti-transphobic and anti-Islamophobic rhetoric, instead of often actively being racist, homophobic, transphobic and Islamophobic.


52 thoughts on “My thoughts on Femen & feminism

  1. Pingback: Links 31 « High on Clichés

  2. stefi

    I really appreciate this article: I think it is very much needed to open debates on the diverse forms feminism is currently taking. Please keep on!

  3. Damairia Pakpahan

    Hi Sara, your comment is very critical, I like it Sis Sara, but for me still burqa and hijab or veil for Muslim women and Catholic nun if the women must (no choice, not free choice) wear it then it is indeed the oppression. Here in Indonesia, more women wear it and if they do not wear it they feel uncomfortable and they will be told to wear it. Even we have the local regulations that regulated the dress code for women (to wear jilbab or hijab) and this is a problem. So in this case, there is no freedom your environment and hierarchy “ask” you to do so. I do not against hijab if it is really free will (but how many women are brave to against the patriarchal interpretation of the religion) and here in Indonesia, we called it “Arabisation” is going on since my mother, my grandmother, they didi not wear hijab since Indonesia is a tropical country whereas very different with Gulf countries. Other issue is why not men wear hijab too? why only women hair must be veiled? Indeed women body (hair) is the object. And in this issue we have to resist.. In solidarity

    1. Hi!

      I totally agree with you. Social pressure is very important. In Egypt many women feel social pressure to veil and so don’t really ‘choose.’ At the same time, this happens in every country in the world. Every society pressures women to act and dress a certain way. So does any woman really have a choice, anywhere? Why is the focus always only on Muslim women?

      1. The focus is so frequently on Muslim women and the burqa because the this way of dressing often comes hand-in-hand with oppression in other aspects of the lives of women, such as FGM, not being allowed to drive a car, high levels of domestic violence, less rights than their husband in marriage, and obviously, as you stated, women often don’t really make a choice to wear it. When, as is the case with the burqa, the expectation to cover your body in such a way is symptomatic of a culture in which the rights of women are repeatedly infringed upon, both legislatively and socially, it strikes me as justified to take particular issue with this type of clothing.
        Obviously the answer is to empower women so that they are able to make an autonomous choice about what to wear, but I don’t think that taking particular issue with the burqa is necessarily a case of islamophobia.

      2. At the same time, this way of dressing doesn’t always come hand-in-hand with oppression, so I don’t think it makes sense to generalize. Many women who choose to wear the burqa CAN drive, have NOT been circumcised and do not face domestic violence, while many women who DON’T wear the burqa face all of the above.
        I also disagree that a focus on the burqa is not Islamophobic. In my experience many who fixate on the burqa do so because of broader stereotypes and assumptions about Islam, not because they genuinely want to act as an ally for women who are forced to wear the burqa (and this, again, is not everyone who wears the burqa). At the end of the day, nobody is really ‘free’ to choose what we wear.

      3. we had this discussion once in my religion class. men also have their hijab: they are meant to dress modestly, they are also meant to grow their beards.

        🙂 its just that thanks to the selectiveness of the media and the general attitudes towards religion by men, its just more prominently visible for women to be targeted. but in islam a man who also doesnt follow the dress code is seen as doing the wrong thing.

        So no more speedos at the beach or board shorts. 🙂

    2. Damairia Pakpahan : Great comments. Why don’t men have to wear anything on their heads? Let me think…..oh, I know because they are men and they can tell women what to wear and what not to wear. Maybe you can try and get a law passed there in Indonesia that says men have to wear hats at all times. Let me know how that works out. Keep up the good work.

  4. The Choicey McChoicersons of the world just don’t get it. I wonder if that’s because they don’t really want to admit how powerful the patriarchy is, or they really, really want to believe that they can defeat it just by choosing choices in an appropriately feisty, sassy, rebellious manner. Believing that means never having to face the depressing truth that women don’t get to choose how they are perceived by men, and that it’s not possible to choose your way out of patriarchy.

    Also, feminism does have a definition. Feminism is a movement, not an aggregation of women’s experiences and opinions. It has a specific meaning and it has a concrete goal: the elimination of male supremacy. Attempts to redefine and not-define are only attempts to distract and neutralize.

    I wrote a short post about naked activism here. Also about choice feminism, here..

    1. Thank you so much for sharing these links! I loved the two pieces, and agree that when feminists are doing something that the media and mainstream men enjoy, then is it really resistance?

      Your points about feminism and choice are very important. It’s an issue I’m still dealing with myself. On the one hand, I find it problematic that for decades white feminists decided what was feminism and what wasn’t, and so the issue of choice is important to me. On the other hand, I see the problems with adopting the choice approach. I don’t know. Still very unsure about the issue.

      1. Feminism as I understand it is about ending the male supremacy that is the foundation of all oppression. Why that would be different for non-white feminists, I have no idea. Choice, on the other hand, is beloved of the liberal feminist set, a goodly percentage of whom are the relatively well-off white women who annoy those less privileged than themselves with their tendency to be self-absorbed and to ignore the experiences of women outside of their own class stratum.

      1. Yes, ending male supremacy is the goal. But male supremacy manifests in different ways depending on the context. So my question is who decides what feminism is and what it isn’t in a specific context? What I see from many liberal white feminists is a tendency to dictate what is “okay” and what is “oppressive,” even in class/racial/religious spaces that aren’t their own. They speak of choice only within limits they themselves have set. For example I have yet to meet a liberal feminist who sees veiling as a choice a Muslim woman makes – choice only applies when they say it applies.

      2. Elle

        @ Sara (below) I would not consider myself to be a liberal feminist. Most of my views are closer to those of radical feminists. I agree with you that a lot of liberal feminists don’t acknowledge and recognize the many forms of women’s oppression in the west- ex. A lot of them see nothing wrong with pornography, prostitution, the beauty industry, etc. I, as most radical feminists do, recognize that these industries are often just as oppressive as religious institutions.

  5. Elle

    I think you have the good intentions, but I would like to critique some of what you write:

    “The reason I’m a feminist is because I believe every woman should have a choice in how she lives.”

    I think the focus on choice in feminism has become very problematic because it means we often exclude from our view the context in which these choices are made. This is why I define feminism as a social MOVEMENT that seeks to liberate ALL women from oppression by destroying PATRIARCHY. Just because women make choices does not mean that all of their choices are feminist and it is important to recognize this. For example, I may choose to adopt my husband’s last name, but this is not a choice that will lead to the liberation of women from patriarchy as it reinforces that very system; therefore, my choice here is not a feminist one.

    “These choices are obviously dependent on socially constructed ideas, norms and values. What a woman can choose in Egypt is not the same as what a woman can choose in Paris, simply because societies see different things as “good” or “bad.”

    Yes, to the first part. Most choices many women make are influenced by socially constructed ideas, norms and values, and unfortunately, most of these ideas, norms and values are created and reinforced by patriarchal societies. Any ideas, norms and values that women adopt are not created and reinforced by the patriarchy are usually marginalized and unpopular. Thus, the fact that Femen is popular with the malestream media is a good indicator that their actions DO NOT threaten the patriarchy; rather, they simply reinforce women’s status as the sex class.

    “Contrary to what western feminists may think, not every woman wears the veil because she’s forced to by her violent, patriarchal father.”

    See your previous quote. There are subtler ways to coerce people into doing things without pointing a gun at their heads. People don’t FORCE girls to wear pink and only play with Barbie dolls and have tea parties. They learn THROUGH the media, their culture, socialization that “this is what they like”. I also sometimes “choose” to wear makeup when I go out. I don’t HAVE TO, but the messages I receive from my culture tells me that if I don’t, I won’t receive as much social validation and attention. So yes, as with the examples I provided within western culture, most muslim women are not forced to wear the veil by their fathers and husbands BUT they are living in a patriarchal culture that influences their decision when making this “choice”.

    By labelling specific things as “feminist” or “anti-feminist,” you are yet again imposing rules and boundaries on women—which is exactly what you claim patriarchy does.

    I’m sorry, but this is so way off. Patriarchy imposes REAL rules and boundaries that severely restricts women’s reproductive rights, sexual autonomy, intellectual potential, safety, etc. You cannot compare what patriarchy does to women who critique each other’s feminism. Asking someone to think about /reflect on whether their choices are really feminist is not restricting anyone’s freedom. Critical thinking is an important aspect of any movement, but especially in feminism, as patriarchy is so ingrained in almost every culture in the world, it is sometimes hard to recognize.

    1. Hi Elle,

      Thanks for your comment!

      As you’ve pointed out, there are a lot of issues with the ‘choice’ approach to feminism. I am speaking from my positionality as a woman of colour, in which my choices are always seen as ‘double consciousness’ while the choices white women make are seen as ‘real choices.’ For this reason, I tend to over-emphasize the question of choice, because I have too often experienced being told that brown women don’t make choices and white women do. So I don’t EVER want to be in the position of telling women that their choice is wrong and mine is right.
      That said, I realize that there are things, like domestic violence, that are blatantly anti-feminist. There are other things that are not so clearly “right” or “wrong” and I am still struggling with how to approach that, and with who gets to decide what is feminist and what isn’t. We really don’t want to fall back into the trap of white/western women making those decisions for everyone else.

      I completely agree that there is social pressure to veil in Muslim countries, just as there is social pressure to look a certain way in non-Muslim countries. My point is that Muslim women are ALWAYS seen as being forced (whether by men or through society) whereas werstern women are rarely seen that way.

      Re. the last point – I wasn’t trying to equate the two and say they are equal. I was trying to point out that feminists need to be careful when we start imposing boundaries and excluding women, because we already made those mistakes. For example, can a woman be a feminist and be religious? I’ve seen many liberal and radical fems say NO. So they end up excluding any woman who identifies with a religion. I personally see that as problematic.

    2. hello

      headscarfs and veils are related to religions and will never ever be a logical comparison to a makeup. getting people`s attention is not the same as pleasing our God. you surely will understand this as you also have your own beliefs. when it comes to professing a religion, holding a belief, we have to take the religion as a whole and not only choosing what we want and what we don’t want. it is not men who impose women to wear the veil and headscarfs, it is the muslims` God who imposed them. i will never understand people going upfront and speaking up for a person who is ok about the situation. we are fine with our headscarfs and veils, we are not oppressed nor sad about it, we are fine. stop speaking up for us. you are not the muslims but then spoke as though you are in our shoes. stop telling us what to do like we are doing towards you. we don’t set your fashion standard nor your lifestyle standard. i just hope people will look beyond all those and know that we are just humans who dresses that way. we muslims also loves to sing and dance, even ice cream. with our headscarfs and veils we are still able to walk, eat and sleep. though not all share my side of the view, i hope you can take into consideration this thought of mine. btw, sara this is really a good reading. thank you for writing this as it opens up my mind to new perspective. your opinion inspires me. I’m even noting it down in my notebook. =)

  6. Elle

    I agree that there are many women in the west who will critique aspects of patriarchy in other cultures yet fail to see its manifestations in their own. However, patriarchy exists everywhere and it comes in many different forms. I personally do not see how it is possible to reconcile the principles of feminism with any of the major world religions as they are products of and continue to promote the ideas, values and norms of patriarchy.

    1. Interesting post. I would think twice before labeling feminists who see religion as liberating as irrational or anti-feminist. In my experience (although I am not an Islamic feminist) it seems that many women have been able to re-interpret religious texts from a feminist perspective. Is this bullshit? Not so sure. Also not so sure I want to be the one passing that judgement.

      “Any system of belief that legitimizes the inferiority of women, discourages critical thinking, and promotes absolute submission to authority does harm and is anti-feminist.”

      This blatant generalization is problematic. So if a feminist says that she does not practice religion in the way you describe, then how would you approach her? She’ the abused housewife who can’t see past her abuse?

      1. Elle

        I am critiquing religion as a form of SYSTEMATIC oppression of women and pointing out that the fundamental principles of feminism (the liberation of women from all forms of male domination) is directly opposed to the fundamental beliefs of Christians, Muslims, Jews, etc. All of them are ENTIRELY CENTRED around male gods and prophets. You cannot reinterpret this, so how can these religions ever be feminist? It’s like being an environmental capitalist. Doesn’t work because one of the fundamental principles of capitalism is the belief in infinite growth and this is not possible on a planet with finite resources. So I would say religious feminists are like individuals who think they are being environmentally friendly because they buy “green” products. They may have good intentions, but the reality is, the only way to truly improve the environment is to change the current economic SYSTEM. In a truly environmentally sustainable world, capitalism would not exist. In a truly feminist world, all major world religions would not exist.

      2. Elle

        Hi Sarah,
        Do you mind pasting your response in the comments section of the post itself? I would really appreciate it as I would like to keep a record of all debates in relation to this topic! Thanks!

  7. This article misses the point that Femen is making. Feminism has many forms. One concept of women’s liberation is that everything that keeps a woman from being totally free has to do with her body. Woman are sexual partners for men in terms of procreation. All the aspects of women’s bodies that are different from men’s bodies have to do with their child bearing ability. If a woman’s body wasn’t made to produce babies she would be a man or some other person but not a woman. Therefore women are defined by their bodies and without the bodies they have they would not be oppressed in the ways they are. (We can talk about trans, non-sexuals, hermaphrodites and others at another time because their positions in society do relate to this subject).

    Hiding a woman’s body doesn’t make it her own. The opposite is true. Women are forced to wear burqas and hijab to hide themselves from men so the men won’t get the wrong idea and think they want to have sex with them or that they are whores. This is not the woman’s fault. It comes out of a tradition where the husband or father wanted to be able to control the woman’s fertility. The predation of other men was dealt with by restricting the freedom of women.

    When the women of Femen show their bodies they are showing that they own their own bodies and are free to do with them as they please.

    When the women of Femen march through Muslim areas in Paris topless they are calling out Muslim women for collaborating with their oppressors.

    Sure, it is ruffling some feathers. It puts me in mind of a bumper sticker a Lesbian friend of mine has on her car: WELL BEHAVED WOMEN RARELY MAKE HISTORY. The point isn’t simply to annoy people (though that is part of it). The point is to act like your body is your own and to actually do what you want with it. When people act shocked they are proving Femen’s point. If people were to simply yawn and go back to watching Honey Boo Boo play the redneck idiot then I’d be worried. This inspires me that someone is willing to put their principals on the line and risk arrest and condemnation to move the discussion toward how to break down patriarchy’s grasp on our minds.

    1. I’m not sure you read the post because at the beginning I clearly said I agree with Femen’s discourse and logic. The article is simply saying this shouldn’t be generalized to everywhere. Feminism in the Middle East (that existed before feminism in Europe, btw) will never look like European feminism and will never use the same tactics. There is nothing wrong with that. What I find very problematic is the spokesperson for Femen saying things to other women live like “AND YOU CALL YOURSELF A FEMINIST???” Yes, let’s cut off any woman who thinks differently from Femen. Not every feminist wants to get naked. Your assumption that the less a woman wears the more liberated she is is VERY problematic, and that is exactly what I was criticizing in my post.

      p.s. Since you think women should have the right to do what they want with their bodies, why can’t a woman cover it? Why is THAT seen as backwards?

      1. Sara:

        Thank you for your considered response.

        There is a point of view that says that everyone should be free to think, feel, and say whatever they want and that this is the proper way to “discourse” about something. In general I would have to agree with this. However, there is another perspective that sees certain things that are said simply as the opposition posing as members of a group so as to undercut them from the inside. Moles, spies, collaborators and “useful idiots” are very real and are used consciously and unconsciously to muddy the waters, create doubt, and discredit movements. There are times when it is appropriate to call something what it is. This woman from Femen felt (and I’m assuming this since I don’t truly know her mind) that the person to whom she was speaking was acting, perhaps, as a collaborator with her own oppressors. Femen takes a very hardline in-your-face approach to their politics. I don’t have a problem with her calling out someone for collaborating with her oppressors which is what I think she was trying to do. There may be many reasons for why Muslim women “choose” to cover up as they do. However, it is done in a context where if they were to “choose” otherwise they would suffer the consequences. So, is it really a choice if they know they will be punished for not covering their bodies? I understand that this woman from Femen is trying to break through the fear patriarchy instills. She seems to be calling for ALL women to stand up and show they own their own bodies. Nudity is a perfect tactic because it directly confronts the mechanism of control. Sometimes people need a good kick in the pants (metaphorically speaking of course) to shake them out of their torpor.

        It is interesting that your article takes the tack that Femen does harm to the movement by questioning someones dedication to Feminism. If “Feminism can only succeed if we accept diversity” then shouldn’t Femen be viewed as one way of being a Feminist. I know that sounds like Sophistry but let me explain. You don’t have to do what they do. You should feel free to denounce what they say as unhelpful. However, in doing so you are trying to whip them into line the way you accuse them of being intolerant of other ways of doing Feminism. It’s a conundrum best dealt with (in my opinion) by a long deep breath and an appreciation of irony.

        I believe there is a place for being intolerant of collaborators. There is a case to be made that “choosing” to cover yourself is knuckling under to patriarchy. I doubt Femen thought they would be greeted with open arms by either fellow travelers or by the patriarchs. What Femen does is Agiprop and Political Theater. They seem to being having some success in getting people to talk seriously about what direction Feminism as a movement should take.

        Feel free to respond if you like but it isn’t necessary. I’m not looking for a flame war here. I do respect and appreciate your article and I thank you for providing me a place to share my views.


        Steven Matherly
        Durham, NC

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  10. Ana Carolina

    Thank you, Sara!

    I really needed to hear this. I was actually checking on the internet if someone would have the same point of view as me since FEMEN became the “feminism mainstream”.
    My point of view is that if you have to be naked to be seen, so you are not changing. I almost never read on the newspaper any comment on the issue they protesting about more than the topless itself, I it is a step back on women rights

    1. I agree 🙂 it seems to be very mainstream in European feminism these days to equate wearing little with emancipation. Sad that this has become a universal standard…

  11. lidia

    Since when Agiprop and Political Theater supported by Western government is worth anything? The bombers of Muslim women are supporting colonial feminism of Femen, and Femen are whitewashing Western colonialism, calling it feminist names – like in Afghanistan, for ex.

  12. R2C

    As a male, perhaps I have a slightly different perspective…
    I’ll start with saying – great article, and great critique not just of the dynamics of the Femen movement, but ANY movement really – the fallacy in the belief that its ideas and practices are the absolute right ones, and that all other courses of action “cheapen” their efforts. This took place within the environmentalist movement, the Occupy movements worldwide, and feminist movements are no exception.

    From a point of purely organizational strategy, this is a HUGE mistake, and almost always prevents the creation of a broad and fully inclusive resistance movement. Resistance Fighters of every movement must realize that ALL aspects of resistance are relevant and useful when combined together, even the ones considered less “radical” or those that expose its participants to less danger. At the same time, the opposite is also true. The FEMEN movement should not marginalize and exclude less “radical” feminist groups, and the latter should not be scared by the impact and effect that FEMEN’s visual extremism provides, and the value of its activism but should instead use it and exploit other people’s efforts too! Let everyone chose what battles to fight and pick their own weapons and battlefields, in accordance with one’s capabilities (material or spiritual/personal).

    There are a couple of more philosophical considerations to be made though. I believe that the term “Feminism” in itself is misleading and too generalized. Proof is that to this day, just like within Communism and Environmentalism, there is no clear definition of what ideals and practices the term imply. Also, on the issue of religion – I would propose that women activist movements within religious contexts should not be perceived as a purely feminist endeavour, as institutionalized religious structures (especially monotheistic ones) are inherently opposed to such, and are inherently patriarchal. I think that they should instead be seen as a reformation of the religious thought.

    I also think you make a great point with FEMEN’s focus on Muslim women – it comes across much like the “white (wo)men’s burden”. But one also must not forget their scope and focus, and the fact that they adhere to it almost religiously (forgive the slight pun). That is not to justify their calling non-FEMEN women’s activists as non-feminists.

    I think one of the most important things you mention are the following:
    “Contrary to what western feminists may think, not every woman wears the veil because she’s forced to by her violent, patriarchal father.” – And i know this for a fact! I know many women who would have the option of not wearing a Hijab at all, but do so because they consider it to be their own personal and individual religious duty. At the same time, what Steve says above is really true as well “There may be many reasons for why Muslim women “choose” to cover up as they do. However, it is done in a context where if they were to “choose” otherwise they would suffer the consequences.”. And because of this, I take exception to this other statement:

    “The reason I’m a feminist is because I believe every woman should have a choice in how she lives. These choices are obviously dependent on socially constructed ideas, norms and values. What a woman can choose in Egypt is not the same as what a woman can choose in Paris, simply because societies see different things as “good” or “bad.” ” – Isn’t one of the fundamental points of feminism (as I understand it), to challenge and eliminate the cultural relativistic perspective or women’s roles in societies? In other words, shouldn’t feminism strive to provide a societal “minimum common denominator” of the rights and roles of women upon which every society is based, and upon which individual choices are then taken?

    Your last paragraph is spot on, but I also believe we should not tolerate movements that attempt to “hijack” the real message and plight and attempt to replace the entire discourse with a “soft” version (again, as it happened in environmentalism). If this happens and those groups/movements are counter-productive to the ultimate goal, they should go.

  13. Briliiantly written as a muslim wome with A VOICE myself i cannot agree more; please to read; WE are not OPPRESSED; the term oppression when it comes too loosely is used too casually. I don’t understand the logic of not wearing clothes; if you lived in the artic would u still walk around naked?

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